The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons given by nurses for working part-time; compare the work experiences, satisfactions, and psychological well-being of nursing staff working full-time vs part-time; and identify possible antecedents and sources of leverage to encourage part-time nurses to work full-time. An online survey was developed, pre-tested and validated, and sent to the regional associations of nurses in Spain for distribution to their members. Data collection involved a cross-sectional design. A total of 2,094 valid questionnaires were completed online. The majority of responding nurses were located in Catalunya and Gipuzkoa. Respondents were given 15 reasons and asked to indicate the extent to which each played a role in their decision to work part-time. Job context and job content scales bearing multi items reliable measures were also employed. All scales met the criteria of reliability. Nurses working full-time included more males, were older, had longer nursing experience (both job and unit tenure), reported higher levels of both job resources (autonomy, self-development opportunities), higher levels of positive work attitudes (job involvement, affective commitment, work engagement), more medication use, and a higher intention to quit. Full-time and part-time nursing staff were similar on marital status, levels of social support (supervisor, co-worker, spouse, and family), self-reported absenteeism, levels of burnout, levels of psychological well-being (psychosomatic symptoms, self-reported health), and potential accident propensity. Some of the more concrete results include: first, reasons for working part-time were varied with some being voluntary (going to school) and others involuntary (poor health). Second, different clusters of individuals likely exist (e.g. students, caretakers, transitioning to retirement or other career options). Third, part-time nursing staff tended to report a more negative workplace (less autonomy, fewer opportunities for self-development) and less favorable work attitudes (less engagement, job involvement, and affective commitment) than their full-time counterparts. First, all data were collected using self-report questionnaires, raising the possibility of response set tendencies. Second, all data were collected at one point in time, making it difficult to determine cause-effect relationships. Third, although the sample was very large, it was not possible to determine its representativeness or a response rate given the data collection procedure employed. Fourth, the large sample size resulted in relatively small mean differences reaching levels of statistical significance. Fifth, many of the nurse and work/organizational outcomes were themselves significantly correlated inflating the number of statistically significant relationships reported. Finally, it is not clear to what extent the findings apply to Spain only. Health care organizations interested in encouraging and supporting part-time nursing staff to consider working full-time may have some sources of leverage. Part-time nursing staff indicated generally lower levels of commitment involvement and engagement compared to their full-time colleagues. Part-time nursing staff in this study reported lower levels of job resources, such as autonomy and self-development opportunities. Increasing nursing staff input into decision making, increasing levels of nursing staff empowerment, increasing supervisory development that in supporting and respecting the nursing staff contributions, reducing levels of workplace incivility, and improving nursing work team functioning would make the work experiences of part-time nursing staff more meaningful and satisfying. In addition, offering more flexible work schedules and tackling the stereotype associated with working only part-time would also address factors associated with working part-time. A more long-term strategy would involve enhancing both the psychological and physical health

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Burke, Ronald J.; Dolan, Simon; Fiksenbaum, Lisa

Part-time versus full-time work: An empirical evidence-based case of nurses in Spain

06/2014
The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons given by nurses for working part-time; compare the work experiences, satisfactions, and psychological well-being of nursing staff working full-time vs part-time; and identify possible antecedents and sources of leverage to encourage part-time nurses to work full-time. An online survey was developed, pre-tested and validated, and sent to the regional associations of nurses in Spain for distribution to their members. Data collection involved a cross-sectional design. A total of 2,094 valid questionnaires were completed online. The majority of responding nurses were located in Catalunya and Gipuzkoa. Respondents were given 15 reasons and asked to indicate the extent to which each played a role in their decision to work part-time. Job context and job content scales bearing multi items reliable measures were also employed. All scales met the criteria of reliability. Nurses working full-time included more males, were older, had longer nursing experience (both job and unit tenure), reported higher levels of both job resources (autonomy, self-development opportunities), higher levels of positive work attitudes (job involvement, affective commitment, work engagement), more medication use, and a higher intention to quit. Full-time and part-time nursing staff were similar on marital status, levels of social support (supervisor, co-worker, spouse, and family), self-reported absenteeism, levels of burnout, levels of psychological well-being (psychosomatic symptoms, self-reported health), and potential accident propensity. Some of the more concrete results include: first, reasons for working part-time were varied with some being voluntary (going to school) and others involuntary (poor health). Second, different clusters of individuals likely exist (e.g. students, caretakers, transitioning to retirement or other career options). Third, part-time nursing staff tended to report a more negative workplace (less autonomy, fewer opportunities for self-development) and less favorable work attitudes (less engagement, job involvement, and affective commitment) than their full-time counterparts. First, all data were collected using self-report questionnaires, raising the possibility of response set tendencies. Second, all data were collected at one point in time, making it difficult to determine cause-effect relationships. Third, although the sample was very large, it was not possible to determine its representativeness or a response rate given the data collection procedure employed. Fourth, the large sample size resulted in relatively small mean differences reaching levels of statistical significance. Fifth, many of the nurse and work/organizational outcomes were themselves significantly correlated inflating the number of statistically significant relationships reported. Finally, it is not clear to what extent the findings apply to Spain only. Health care organizations interested in encouraging and supporting part-time nursing staff to consider working full-time may have some sources of leverage. Part-time nursing staff indicated generally lower levels of commitment involvement and engagement compared to their full-time colleagues. Part-time nursing staff in this study reported lower levels of job resources, such as autonomy and self-development opportunities. Increasing nursing staff input into decision making, increasing levels of nursing staff empowerment, increasing supervisory development that in supporting and respecting the nursing staff contributions, reducing levels of workplace incivility, and improving nursing work team functioning would make the work experiences of part-time nursing staff more meaningful and satisfying. In addition, offering more flexible work schedules and tackling the stereotype associated with working only part-time would also address factors associated with working part-time. A more long-term strategy would involve enhancing both the psychological and physical health
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Part-time versus full-time work: An empirical evidence-based case of nurses in Spain
Burke, Ronald J.; Dolan, Simon; Fiksenbaum, Lisa
Evidence-based HRM: A Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship
Vol. 2, n 2, 06/2014, p. 176 - 191

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