Sustainable entrepreneurs have been defined as generating "market disequilibria that initiate the transformation of a sector towards an environmentally and socially more sustainable state" (Hockerts and Wüstenhagen, 2010: 482). Other authors see changing institutions as one of the possible types of sustainable entrepreneurship (Schaltegger and Wagner, 2012). To exploit opportunities caused by market failures or externalities, they need market and non-market strategies (Hockerts and Wüstenhagen, 2010; Baron, 1995). In using such strategies to transform an industry, sustainable entrepreneurs often bring about changes at the institutional level or create new institutions or proto-institutions (Lawrence et al., 2002). However, any account of sustainable entrepreneurs as atomized or undersocialized actors, ready to take strategic action according to their self-interests and perceived opportunities, would be misleading. As any other agent or organization, sustainable entrepreneurs are embedded in highly institutionalized contexts: they are always within a web of social relations and networks, institutional arrangements, and taken-for-granted norms (Scott, 2001). This leads to the paradox of embedded agency Friedland & Alford, 1991; Clemens & Cook, 1999; Seo & Creed, 2002), which has been summarized as follows: "if actors are embedded in an institutional field and subject to regulative, normative and cognitive processes that structure their cognitions, define their interests and produce their identities, how are they able to envision new practices and then subsequently get others to adopt them?" (Garud, Hardy & Maguire, 2007).

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Arenas Vives, Daniel; Struminska-Kutra , Marta; Landoni , Paolo

Sustainable entrepreneurship: Double embeddedness

Sustainable entrepreneurs have been defined as generating "market disequilibria that initiate the transformation of a sector towards an environmentally and socially more sustainable state" (Hockerts and Wüstenhagen, 2010: 482). Other authors see changing institutions as one of the possible types of sustainable entrepreneurship (Schaltegger and Wagner, 2012). To exploit opportunities caused by market failures or externalities, they need market and non-market strategies (Hockerts and Wüstenhagen, 2010; Baron, 1995). In using such strategies to transform an industry, sustainable entrepreneurs often bring about changes at the institutional level or create new institutions or proto-institutions (Lawrence et al., 2002). However, any account of sustainable entrepreneurs as atomized or undersocialized actors, ready to take strategic action according to their self-interests and perceived opportunities, would be misleading. As any other agent or organization, sustainable entrepreneurs are embedded in highly institutionalized contexts: they are always within a web of social relations and networks, institutional arrangements, and taken-for-granted norms (Scott, 2001). This leads to the paradox of embedded agency Friedland & Alford, 1991; Clemens & Cook, 1999; Seo & Creed, 2002), which has been summarized as follows: "if actors are embedded in an institutional field and subject to regulative, normative and cognitive processes that structure their cognitions, define their interests and produce their identities, how are they able to envision new practices and then subsequently get others to adopt them?" (Garud, Hardy & Maguire, 2007).
More Knowledge
Sustainable entrepreneurship: Double embeddedness
Arenas Vives, Daniel; Struminska-Kutra , Marta; Landoni , Paolo
Sustainable Innovation and Entrepreneurship Academy 2015
EUInnovative
Bruselas (Belgium), 01/09/2015 - 04/09/2015

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